Revelation Chapter 13, Mark of the Beast 666 – sermon video audio notes

Man without the seal of the living God (7:2) has the mark of the beast. With the seal of the living God one cannot buy or sell of the world. We must trust God if we take the Lord’s mark. With the mark of the beast one cannot help but buy and sell of the same beast they are marked.

By Pastor Delbert Young

Revelation Chapter 13 – Beast out of the Sea, Beast out of the Earth, 666

Revelation Chapter 13 – Beast out of the Sea, Beast out of the Earth, 666

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Revelation 13:1 And I stood upon the sand of the sea, and saw a beast rise up out of the sea, having seven heads and ten horns, and upon his horns ten crowns, and upon his heads the name of blasphemy.

1 We saw the dragon in chapter twelve. There is no doubt that the dragon of chapter 12 was the serpent of old who is the devil and Satan. John, in his vision, found himself standing upon the sand of the sea. He was looking out toward the waters. As John looked he saw a beast rise up out of the sea.

Perhaps it would be helpful to remind us of some of the events to this point. We are seeing that the Revelation is “The Revelation of Jesus Christ.” It is not the revelation of antichrist. John has four great visions of Jesus Christ. Each vision begins with John leaving the natural and going into the spiritual. Each vision begins with John being carried away in the spirit (1:10; 4:2; 17:3; 21:10). The first vision was the vision of the Son of man (1:13). We are now looking into the second vision. This vision is about the inauguration and wrath of the Lamb (6:16). This vision concerns the days the Gentiles tread underfoot the holy city (11:2).

John saw the beasts who are involved in this vision. It is important here to mention that John purposefully desired we see each of these creatures as a beast. This is more important than seeing exactly who they were. It is also important that we see where they received their power. This too is more important than who they are.

It will help if we can visualize the situation. Imagine you are standing on a beach and WOOM! Suddenly the water boils and erupts as up rises a huge beast close enough to count its seven heads and its ten horns. It has ten crowns upon his horns. It is close enough to read the name blasphemy written on its heads. This is the portrait John was conveying.

The beast rose out of the sea. We will see clearly before we are done that this beast is to be associated with the Roman Empire. Chilton notes that the Italian peninsula would seem itself to rise out of the Adriatic Sea. Biblically there is more to the thought John gave here. To discuss this beast we will study this in sections or questions. First, from where did the beast arise? We know it was out of the sea, but what does that mean? John interpreted waters or seas in the Revelation for us. Isaiah also speaks of seas or waters. Waters and seas are peoples, and multitudes, and nations, and tongues (Rev 17:15). Isaiah said multitude of many people make a noise like the noise of the seas (Isa 17:12). Isaiah also said the wicked are like the troubled sea, when it cannot rest, whose waters cast up mire and dirt. There is no peace (Isa 57:20, 21).

We learn that seas and troubled waters are prophetic terms for people, multitudes, nations (Rev 17:15), and the wicked (57:20-21). Like the sea the nations cannot rest. Even if the top water is still the tide is coming in or it is going out. Usually the waves are rolling and there is constant motion. Out of that motion and wickedness of the nations the beast rose.

We will see this beast again in Revelation 17:3. In chapter 17 John is given information about the beast. We will draw from that information to answer the question of who or what this beast was. In chapter 17 John was told that the beast was, is, and shall ascend out of the bottomless pit. The sea is also the bottomless pit (see discussion 9:1-3). It was from this pit the demon locusts and the king of the demon locusts (Abaddon and Apollyon; 9:11) came. We made the point in chapter 9 that this bottomless pit was hell. It represents the greatest distance from God possible. It was from there the beast rose.

This beast from the sea was actually from the nations. It is wicked and in the farthest place from God it can be – the bottomless pit.

If from a nation, then from what nation did this beast come? We are told. It is found in the seven heads of the beast. John clearly defines these heads in chapter 17.

Revelation 17:9 And here is the mind which hath wisdom. The seven heads are seven mountains, on which the woman sitteth. (emphasis added)

Please read Matthew Henry’s remarks.

“This beast was seven heads, seven mountains, the seven hills on which Rome stands; and seven kings, seven sorts of government. Five were gone by when this prophecy was written; one was then in being; the other was yet to come.” (emphasis added)

Rome Italy is the consensus of the seven mountains of both kingdom and dispensational interpreters.

Wall says,

“Rome was well-known as the city built on seven hills; thus, most would recognize the seven-headed beast the woman rides as Rome.”

Morris says,

“The seven heads are explained as seven hills on which the woman sits. This identifies her with Rome, for the seven hills of that city are often mentioned in ancient literature.”

Van Impe says,

“This is a tremendous text. It locates, geographically, the final world power block and headquarters for the world church as well. Historically speaking, Rome is the only city situated on seven hills… There is no disputing the fact.”

Rome is the location from which the beast came. We see that the beast came from the sea which was the nations. The specific nation was Italy. The specific city was Rome.

Dispensationalists say that this will be a future Roman Empire. This beast, they say, is the antichrist who will establish a new World Empire with its capital in Rome. From Rome the antichrist will rule the world. Naturally, according to them, the new temple will have also been rebuilt in Jerusalem. The amazing thing is all this happens in three and one-half years.

By looking once again at what Daniel told Nebuchadnezzar in Daniel 2 will allow us to establish the Roman empire of 63 B.C. to 410 A.D. as the legitimate beast of the sea. Daniel interpreted the dream of Nebuchadnezzar around B.C. 603. Daniel told Nebuchadnezzar there was his kingdom, the Chaldean Empire (625-536 B.C.). Following that empire would be three more world powers, the Medes and Persians (536-330 B.C.), Grecian (Macedonian) (330-166), and Rome (63 B.C. – 410 A.D.). During the days of the fourth empire the Lord God would establish a kingdom. The stone would be cut out of the mountain during the days of that kingdom. The fourth empire was the Roman Empire. That was the time Jesus was born. That is historically proven. It was in the days of that Roman Empire that Jesus came. No one argues that Jesus is the stone cut out of the mountain.

This beast of Rome Italy is not a future person or a future location of a world empire. It was a past empire that history proves existed. Following is the interpretation of Matthew Henry of Daniel chapter two concerning the four empires.

“This image represented the kingdoms of the earth, that should successively rule the nations, and influence the affairs of the Jewish church. 1. The head of gold signified the Chaldean empire, then in being. 2. The breast and arms of silver signified the empire of the Medes and Persians. 3. The belly and thighs of brass signified the Grecian empire, founded by Alexander. 4. The legs and feet of iron signified the Roman Empire. The Roman Empire branched into ten kingdoms, as the toes of these feet. Some were weak as clay, others strong as iron. Endeavors have often been used to unite them, for strengthening the empire, but in vain. The stone cut out without hands, represented the kingdom of our Lord Jesus Christ, which should be set up in the kingdoms of the world, upon the ruins of Satan’s kingdom in them. This was the Stone which the builders refused, because it was not cut out by their hands, but it is become the head stone of the corner. Of the increase of Christ’s government and peace there shall be no end. The Lord shall reign, not only to the end of time, but when time and days shall be no more. As far as events have gone, the fulfilling this prophetic vision has been most exact and undeniable; future ages shall witness this Stone destroying the image, and filling the whole earth.” (emphasis added)

Contemporary dispensational teaching interpret this beast as the antichrist. To them the antichrist is a man in the future. That is not what John said. The antichrist was in the past and is today (1Jo 2:18, 22; 4:3; 1:7). (We will devote an entire chapter to study the antichrist scripturally.) The point here is that the verse does not say this is a man. This is a beast out of the sea. We will see in 17:9-10 that the beast is 7 mountains and 7 kings. It is not a man.

This beast was the kingdom existing when Jesus came. How can this be argued? This beast kingdom was in existence when Jesus was born. It was Rome Italy. The Roman Empire was in existence when Jesus Christ ascended and received the kingdom (Dan 7:13-14). To place a several millennia parenthesis in Daniel’s prophecy is wrong. To say this is an antichrist to come is wrong.

The beast also had ten horns, and upon his horns ten crowns. Again chapter 17 gives us the understanding to the verse.

Revelation 17:12 And the ten horns which thou sawest are ten kings…

Rome actually had ten provinces each having its own king. These were Achaia, Asia, Syria, Egypt, Africa, Spain, Gaul, Britain, and Germany. Each province was then divided into smaller “kingdoms” and appointed a “king.” For example one of the kings appointed for Judea was Herod (Mat 2:1).

The king of the kings would be Caesar. This, as we will see later, is what John is pointing out. The true King of kings is Jesus, not Caesar. The beast had ten horns and upon his horns ten crowns. Each province had its own army all under Roman rule. As we saw when studying the horns in chapter 12, we noted that the horn is the ability to push and war. We looked at many scriptures showing horns as symbolic of pushing and dominance. When the horn is cut off or broken it is a sign that nation will be defeated by another nation.(See discussion 12:3).

Interestingly, during the A.D. 70 war the kings sent their armies to contribute to the desolation of Israel.

“…so that the whole army, including the auxiliaries sent by the kings, as well horsemen as footmen, when all were united together, amounted to sixty thousand.”

As John saw this beast rise from the sea he saw upon his heads the name of blasphemy. This blasphemy is also found in 17:3. The word blasphemia (Greek) translated blasphemy means “vilification.” Vilification means “To make vicious and defamatory statements about.” The Greek word has a lengthy list of root words. Some of the root words have meanings like “scurrilous” (given to the use of vulgar, coarse, or abusive language; foul-mouthed); “impious” (Lacking reverence; not pious); “to hinder; injure; a saying; rumor; to show or make known one’s thoughts; luminousness.” John says in Revelation 13:1 “…upon his heads the name of blasphemy.” In Revelation 17:3 John says, “…beast, full of names of blasphemy…” This beast was the absolute fullness of blasphemy.

The emperors projected themselves as gods and demanded worship. They built temples to their selves in the larger cities and demanded that incense be burnt to them. We can easily see that emperor worship was blasphemous. The Caesars made defamatory statements about the God of the Jews and projected Roman gods as superior. Josephus records one incident where Caius Caesar desired to put a statue of himself in the temple of the Jews.

“Now Caius Caesar did so grossly abuse the fortune he had arrived at, as to take himself to be a god, and to desire to be so called also, and to cut off those of the greatest nobility out of his country. He also extended his impiety as far as the Jews. Accordingly, he sent Ptroniums with an army to Jerusalem, to place his statues in the temple, and commanded him that, in case the Jews would not admit of them, he should slay those that opposed it, and carry all the rest of the nation into captivity.”

This incident and such mentality is to what Paul refers to in 2 Thessalonians 2-4). Paul refers to the end of Moses as the day of Christ or we would better understand it by saying the day of the King. Paul said these things such as Caesar worship and a defiling of the temple of God came first which would revel the son of perdition. We have already noted several times that Revelation 17 defines this beast we study here. Speaking of one of the heads of this same beast, 17:11 says, And the beast that was, and is not, even he is the eighth, and is of the seven, and goeth into perdition.

Actually the Jews had moved into a place of offering sacrifices for Caesar and for the Roman nation. Josephus writes,

“Hereupon the multitude cried out, that they were ready to suffer for their law. Petronius then quieted them, and said to them, ‘Will you then make war against Caesar?’ The Jews said, ‘We offer sacrifices twice every day for Caesar, and for the Roman people.'”

There is no sacrifice provided in the Law of Moses for any emperor. Doing this was not of God. In fact it would be in contradiction to God. The Jews were became more and more apostate. They were riding the beast (Rev 17:3) and upon his heads the name of blasphemy.

After the fall of Jerusalem Titus was given a triumphal entry which included a huge parade. In this parade the Roman gods were shown to triumph over the Jewish God. Statues and images of the Roman gods were carried. Not only did the Caesars demand worship as themselves being a god, they demanded the worship of their gods. Those who refused were killed.

“Why did the Roman emperors and senate persecute the Christians so? First of all, they didn’t understand that Christ’s kingdom is not a temporal kingdom and they feared for their powerful leadership roles if too many citizens followed Christ. Secondly, Christians despised the false Roman gods, preferring to worship only the true, living God. Whatever happened in Rome – famine, disease, earthquake, wars, bad weather – was blamed on the Christians who defied the Roman gods.”

Though we have already used several pages on verse one, let’s rehearse what we have studied before going on.

The sea and waters are the nations (Rev 17:5; Isa 17:12; 57:20-21). The beast rose out of the nations. The beast is not a man. It is a beast. The seven heads are seven mountains (Rev 17:9). This is the city of Rome, Italy that was the capital of the Roman Empire. Daniel’s prophecy of Daniel chapter 2 and 7 shows this beast as the empire that would rule when Jesus Christ came. History proves this accurate. The heads also represent seven kings (Rev 17:10). Beginning with Julius Caesar and counting to the head that John says “is” was Nero. Nero was the emperor who declared war upon the Philistia in A.D. 66. The beast had ten horns. Horns speak of dominance. The horn is the animals defense and attack weapon (Jer 48:25; 1Ki 22:11). Historically proven, Rome had ten provinces each with a king that dominated and defended that province. We know this is in line with the meaning of the text: for upon his horns were ten crowns. Upon the heads of the beast was the name of blasphemy. The Roman emperors declared themselves as gods and blasphemed the Lord God. They demanded worship. They mocked the God of Israel and the God of Christians. Though this beast is taught as a man (antichrist) it is an empire as Daniel showed (Dan 2:7).

Revelation 13:2 And the beast which I saw was like unto a leopard, and his feet were as the feet of a bear, and his mouth as the mouth of a lion: and the dragon gave him his power, and his seat, and great authority.

2 John describes the beast as like a leopard, feet of a bear, and mouth of a lion. We find the exact same beasts (plural) in Daniel 7. It is to this John alludes (Dan 7:3-7). This beast of Revelation 13 was the fourth beast of Daniel 7:7. It was everything the other three were and more. It was the summation of all the others and is dreadful, terrible, and strong exceedingly. It is the fourth kingdom. Historically proven, this was the Roman Empire. Daniel was given some interpretation to the vision (Dan 7:16-24). Daniel was given basically the same interpretation of the dream of Nebuchadnezzar (Dan 2). There would be four kingdoms. In Daniel 2, during the days of the fourth kingdom, a stone would be cut out of the mountain. That stone would crush every kingdom. That stone is Jesus. The kingdom of those days was the Roman Empire. The fourth beast of Daniel 7 and this beast of Revelation 13:1-10 were one in the same–the Roman Empire.

John informs us the dragon gave the beast his power, and his seat, and great authority. The dragon of chapter 12 – serpent, devil, and Satan–gave this empire (beast) power. The word for power is dunamis (Greek) and means “force and miraculous power.” The dragon also gave the beast its seat. This would be the position of the dragon to rule. Also the beast was given great authority. Authority exosia (Greek) means “privilege, force, capacity.” The dragon became embodied by the beast or Roman Empire. The empire was nothing other than an outworking of the dragon–the serpent, devil, and Satan. If a person wanted to see the devil personified then study the Roman Empire and its Caesars. The Roman Empire was a picture of the kingdom of darkness.

Verse 2 confirms what we studied in verse 1. By using Daniel 7 we see that this beast is the Roman Empire historically proven.

Dispensationalists agree that this is a reference to Daniel chapter 7. They even agree that all four of the beasts became the following empires. LaHaye says,

“Daniel’s four beasts in chapter 7 represented future kingdoms, beginning with the lion that represented the Babylonian Empire. Then he saw a bear that represented the Medo-Persian Empire, followed by a leopard representing the Grecian Empire, followed by a nondescript beast portraying the Roman Empire. These four animals, representing the four world kingdoms, are most interesting, for no world powers have existed other than the four described by Daniel, who wrote at the beginning of this chain of conquests. John penned his description when the last governmental beast was in control…

The seven heads of this beast are mentioned in Revelation 17 as kings of the Roman Empire (17:10). The best definition I have heard is that they represent five kings to the time of John; the sixth, Domitian, was the Roman king at the time of John who then skipped forward to the end time for the seventh head, Antichrist…”

Contemporaries agree that it is Daniel who showed this first. They agree that it pointed to the Roman Empire. Then they say that John records the time of the Caesars through Domitian and then skipped forward to the end time for the seventh head, Antichrist. Why skip seventy plus Caesars to come to the seventh? There were over seventy Roman emperors after Domitian, but Domitian was not the sixth. Nero was the sixth emperor.

Revelation 13:3 And I saw one of his heads as it were wounded to death; and his deadly wound was healed: and all the world wondered after the beast.

3 The contemporaries go wild on this one. We will discuss their teaching shortly.

This deadly wound given to one of the heads of the beast must be seen as more than a passing mention. John refers to this wound three times in this chapter (Rev 13:3, 12, 14). It was important.

We have seen that the seven heads of this beast were seven hills and link the seven kings or Caesars (see discussion on verse 1 and refer to 17:9, 10). It is important that all the world wondered after the beast, not wondered after the wounded head. There are all types of interpretations to verse 3, some so far-fetched that even the Dispensationalists mock them.

We know one of those heads was in power at that very moment John wrote this Revelation (17:10). We then know with certainty that we are speaking of the Caesars and not only hills. John said, And there are seven kings: five are fallen, and one is, and the other is not yet come; and when he cometh, he must continue a short space. We will talk more of this in chapter 17. John said the last of these seven heads would continue a short space. The correct seventh Caesar from Julius was Galba who only reigned seven months. He only continued a short space.

The first head was Gaius Julius. Julius was the very first dictator of Rome to attempt to become the absolute king of the Roman Empire. Many of the Roman senate opposed the idea of an absolute king and assassinated Julius Caesar.

“Fearing that he would become an absolute king, many whom he had earlier pardoned conspired to murder him. The conspirators, led by Marcus Junius Brutus and Gaius Cassius Longinus, stabbed him at a meeting of the Senate in Pompey’s theater on March 15 (the ides of March), 44 BC.”

This head (Julius) itself suffered a wound to death. However, the dream Gaius Julius left of an absolute king of the most terrible kingdom to ever exist did not suffer death. His son, Octavian, rose to be Caesar Augustus. Statues of the Caesars were throughout the empire. There were none more imaged than Gaius Julius. Though dead, he lived. Coins with his portrayal became popular, and a temple was erected to him.

The head was wounded unto death, but the beast did not die. His deadly wound was healed. Emperor images were throughout the kingdom. Caesar worship was demanded or die, and all the world (ge – soil, region) wondered after the beast. Even the land of Philistia offered sacrifices for Caesar. Out of Juda’s own mouth was said, We have no king but Caesar (Joh 19:15). Because of Julius, the remainder of the emperors became emperors.

Dispensationalist interpret this passage as the death and resurrection of the antichrist. LaHaye says speaking of the antichrist,

“Christianity is unique in that we worship a resurrected, living Lord. The power of this testimony is beyond description to men, who are real seekers after truth. This power will be all but nullified by the nefarious work of Satan through the resurrection of the Antichrist. As far as I know, this will be the first time that Satan has ever been able to raise the dead.”

We have become fascinated by the fanciful interpretations of Dr. Gary G. Cohen. He does not fail here to be amazing once more. Cohen says,

“This seems to be the Antichrist’s counterfeit of the resurrection of Christ! How will it occur? No one knows. Perhaps it will be accomplished by modern freezing techniques??? Antichrist may be stabbed, pronounced dead, frozen, operated upon, unfrozen, given an electric shock–and then be ALIVE AGAIN! RESURRECTED!”

See what we mean? Others say that it is not the death of the man (antichrist) that will be resurrected. It will actually be the Roman Empire resurrected. J. Vernon McGee says,

“There are others who take the view that the Beast here refers to the Roman Empire and that the imperial form of government, under which Rome fell, will be restored in a startling manner. I believe this will happen, but I do not think it is a resurrection, for Rome never died; Rome fell apart. Rome is like Humpty-Dumpty:

Humpty-Dumpty sat on a wall;

Humpty- Dumpty had a great fall;

All the King’s horses, and all the King’s men could not put Humpty-Dumpty together again.

But Antichrist can and will put Humpty-Dumpty together again and it will be a marvelous thing.”

We have a serious problem with any nation or man becoming “THE” world power. If Jesus is truly the King and his kingdom shall never end (Dan 7:13-14), then this would mean there would never be another world power. His kingdom will rule, and any nation or man that attempted to become “THE” world power would be destroyed–ground to powder. Many rulers have attempted to become the world power since the ascension of Christ. All have become powder. There has not been one world dictating power since Rome. Our interpretation says that this beast was cast into the lake of fire and will never be released (Rev 19:20).

History stands with this interpretation. Jesus Christ is king today. There will never be another world empire – never! Rome was the last.

Revelation 13:4 And they worshipped the dragon which gave power unto the beast: and they worshipped the beast, saying, Who is like unto the beast? who is able to make war with him?

Those John refers to as they who worshipped the dragon and worshipped the beast would be a reference to apostate Israel. As already mentioned above the Jews daily offered sacrifice for Caesar in the temple. Because the beast was of the dragon this sacrifice was worship of the dragon. Rather than worshiping the obvious Messiah, the religious apostates determined to kill Jesus. A primary reason they killed Jesus was so the Romans would not take their “nation” or their “place” (Joh 11:47-48). This is clearly written. After Jesus raised Lazarus from the dead it was obvious to the religious order that Jesus was of God. However, they turned their backs on this and killed the Messiah.

During the passion of our Lord, Pilate attempted to release Jesus. Pilate projected the thought that Jesus was the king of the Jews. Yet, the Jews replied, We have no king but Caesar (Joh 19:15).

By their own confession the Jews faithfulness was to Caesar. It was not to the Lord God or his Christ (King). They worshipped the dragon. They worshipped the beast. There was a reason. The reason was who can make war with the beastThey will take our place and take our nation, they said (John 11:48). The Jews killed the Christ to avoid war with the beast. Killing the Christ did not avoid war with the beast. Less than one generation later the beast came and laid Jerusalem and Juda desolate.

John tells us the dragon gave power unto the beast. Hopefully by now what John revealed has become clear. The dragon – the serpent, devil, and Satan – gave power to the Roman Empire. He had previously given power to prior world powers. The serpent needed to be able to use the empires (kingdoms) to devour the seed. This was his attempt to stop the birth of the man child (Son of man) (12:4). The serpent needed the empire to persecute the woman (12:13).

Rev 13:5 And there was given unto him a mouth speaking great things and blasphemies; and power was given unto him to continue forty and two months.

Rev 13:6 And he opened his mouth in blasphemy against God, to blaspheme his name, and his tabernacle, and them that dwell in heaven.

5, 6 John returned to the forty and two months. We have already noted that this was a three and one-half year span. This related to the time the Gentiles will tread under foot the holy city (Rev 11:2). This was the time of great tribulation (Mat 24:21) spoken of by Jesus. Power had been given to the beast to speak great things and blasphemies for this time period. The Lord placed a time on it of forty-two months. Jesus said the tribulation would have a limited amount of time (Mat 24:21, 22). Jesus said, “…except those days should be shortened, there should no flesh be saved.”

John assured his readers that what would happened to Jerusalem was not contrary to the power of God. All this was in accordance with God’s time and will. It was God who actually gave the power to the beast, not the dragon. Often our minds are taught to think that the devil is giving his power. In actuality the Lord Jesus has all authority and power (Mat 28:18). The Lord used the devil. This actually happened to Israel.

John said he opened his mouth in blasphemy against God, to blaspheme his name, and his tabernacle, and them that dwell in heaven. The thought of dwelling in heaven traditionally takes on an “after death” thinking. This is not biblical thinking. Dwelling in heaven is actually for the believer to experience now (Eph 2:6; Phi 3:20). It is not biblical to say heaven is for when I die. The believer is to dwell in heaven now.

The beast spoke blasphemy against God. He also spoke blasphemy against all that God sanctioned — his name. The beast blasphemed the tabernacle. The beast blasphemed the believers dwelling in heaven, or heavenly places in Christ. We have already discussed this blasphemy (see discussion verse 1). The Caesars projected themselves as gods. During the triumphal entry of the Roman conquerors the gods of the lands they conquered were blasphemed. This was also true for the conquest parade of Titus after Philistia’s destruction. Titus was given a great triumphal entry. Great enactments of the war and battles were dramatized including the burning of the temple. The gold and costly items of the temple were captured and displayed in the triumphal parade of Titus. Josephus writes,

“…related that such a thing they had undergone during this war. Now the workmanship of these representations was so magnificent and lively in the construction of the things, that it exhibited what had been done to such as did not see it, as if they had been there really present. On the top of every one of these pageants was placed the commander of the city that was taken, and the manner wherein he was taken. Moreover, there followed those pageants a great number of ships; and for the other spoils, they were carried in great plenty. But for those that were taken in the temple of Jerusalem, they made the greatest figure of them all; that is the golden table, of the weight of many talents; the candlestick also, that was made of gold, though its construction was now changed from that which we made use of; for its middle shaft was fixed upon a basis, and the small branches were produced out of it to a great length, having the likeness of a trident in their position, and had everyone a socket made of brass for a lamp at the tops of them. These lamps were in number seven, and represented the dignity of the number seven among the Jews; and the last of all the spoils, was carried the Law of the Jews.” 

Caesar would be worshipped as god. The emperors blasphemed God, his name, and the temple. Caesar blasphemed God’s people. He mocked and blasphemed those fallen away in apostasy (Jews) and those who dwell in heaven (Christians). No nation had the opportunity to blaspheme both except Rome. No empire had the opportunity to blaspheme the temple except that Roman Empire.

Revelation 13:7 And it was given unto him to make war with the saints, and to overcome them: and power was given him over all kindreds, and tongues, and nations.

Revelation 13:8 And all that dwell upon the earth shall worship him, whose names are not written in the book of life of the Lamb slain from the foundation of the world.

7, 8 We say that it is impossible for a man or even a nation to acquire enough power today that all kindreds, tongues, and nations will serve him or it. We say this with Biblical confidence knowing that there will never be another kingdom (world empire) nor another world king. The kingdom that will last from now until forever is the kingdom of God. The King is the Son of man, Jesus Christ (Dan 2:44, 45; 7:13, 14). Today there would be world-wide resistance to a man. Just thinking that the world would consider allowing a man to rule it is preposterous and ludicrous. We watched what happened to the USSR which had the goal of ruling the world. The point  is this verse cannot be futuristic. This man and this beast was given power over all nations. Rome acquired that position. It was that way then. World empires existed and followed one another. In recent history no one country has come close. Think about it. This antichrist person is supposed to be so charismatic that within three and one-half years he persuades the entire world to follow him. They not only follow him, which is in itself impossible, they also worship him. That theology is ridiculous.

John said All that dwell upon the earth shall worship him. Again, how imaginative is it to think this could happen today. No nation in today’s advancing society would do this. In John’s day it did happen. Caesar proclaimed and received worship by all. That is except those written in the book of life of the Lamb slain from the foundation of the world. These refused to worship the beast. Because of this they were killed. Even natural Jerusalem burned sacrifices daily for Caesar. Heavenly Jerusalem refused to worship the beast. Josephus writes of the sacrifices of the Jew for Caesar.

“Hereupon the multitude cried out, that they were ready to suffer for their law. Petronius then quieted them, and said to them, ‘Will you then make war against Caesar?’ The Jews said, ‘We offer sacrifices twice every day for Caesar, and for the Roman people.'”

Revelation 13:9 If any man have an ear, let him hear.

Revelation 13:10 He that leadeth into captivity shall go into captivity: he that killeth with the sword must be killed with the sword. Here is the patience and the faith of the saints.

9, 10 Correct us if we are wrong, but John is speaking here about captivity. He is also speaking of killing with a sword. Does this sound like 21st Century warfare to you? (Probably not.) This is because John is speaking to the seven churches in Asia around A.D. 65. This is where the saints of Jerusalem will flee or have fled. Apostate Israel was lead into captivity and was killed by the sword. Looking at another translation will help us with this verse.

Revelation 13:9 He who has an ear, let him hear.

Revelation 13:10 If anyone is to go into captivity, into captivity he will go. If anyone is to be killed with the sword, with the sword he will be killed. This calls for patient endurance and faithfulness on the part of the saints. [NIV]

Revelation 13:9 Anyone who can hear, listen carefully:

Rev 13:10 The people of God who are destined for prison will be arrested and taken away; those destined for death will be killed. But do not be dismayed, for here is your opportunity for endurance and confidence. [Living Bible]

The meaning of the verse is destiny. The New American Standard Version says, “If any one is destined for captivity, to captivity he goes; if any one kills with the sword, with the sword he must be killed. Here is the perseverance and the faith of the saints.” We have discussed it time and again. There was a generation destined who would see the termination of the age of Moses. That generation would exist during the kingdom of the fourth part of the image of the dream in Daniel chapter two. It would be at that time God would establish a kingdom that would never end. It was to this very hard hearted, arrogant and stiff necked generation Jesus came. Jesus said that Isaiah prophesied about this destined generation. Jesus said the generation that he came to fulfilled the deaf and blind generation (Mat 13:14; Joh 12:39-41). Jesus said that people of that generation possessed a waxed gross heart (Mat 13:15).

The times and seasons are in the hand of the Lord God Almighty. There must be a generation when the time of Moses would be fulfilled. There was a destined generation. Jesus came to it and that generation pierced him (Rev 1:7).

John is giving us yet another allusion. He alludes here to the words of Jeremiah (Jer 15:1-7). Speaking about Israel, the Lord said to Jeremiah, Though Moses and Samuel stood before me, yet my mind could not be toward this people: cast them out of my sight, and let them go forth (Jer 15:1). The Lord went on to say, Such as are for death, to death; and such as are for the sword, to the sword; and such as are for the famine, to the famine; and such as are for the captivity, to the captivity (Jer 15:2). Finally the Lord says, For who shall have pity upon thee, O Jerusalem? I will destroy my people since they return not from their ways (Jer 15:5-7).

Jesus had said Woe unto you. Their religious system had led the people into captivity. Into captivity they would go. They had killed the prophets and those sent to them by the sword (Mat 23:34-36). By the sword they would die. He that leadeth into captivity shall go into captivityHe that killeth with the sword must be killed with the sword.

If a person had an ear they could hear. Here is the patience and the faith of the saints. All that was required was to have an ear for the scriptures. Once one knew the scriptures patience and faith of the saints was available.

Revelation 13:11 And I beheld another beast coming up out of the earth; and he had two horns like a lamb, and he spake as a dragon.

11 John saw another beast. The word therion (Greek) translated beast is a dangerous, hunting, destructive animal. The prior beast in this chapter came out of the sea. The sea spoke of nations (Rev 17:15; Isa 17:12; 57:20, 21). This beast came up out of the earth. As shown over and over, earth is ge. That word means soil and region. It does not mean the earth as in the planet earth. This beast came from the soil or region of Philistia.

The first beast came from the sea and would exercise its authority over the nations. This beast will exercise its authority over a region. That region was Jerusalem. Jerusalem definitely had the effects of this beast. So did Nazareth, Capernaum, Ephesus, Sardis, and Laodicea have the effects of this beast? John is giving us insight to the workings of the dragon – that old serpent called the devil and Satan. He worked the nations by government. He also worked the individual regions of the nations by religions (Rev 2:9; 3:9).

This beast was the influence of Judaism. Judaism rejected the Lord God and killed the Lord’s Christ. Juda sacrificed for Caesar, and encouraged the killing of Christians.

The beast from the land had two horns like a lamb, and he spake as a dragon. This beast resembled the lamb, but spake as the dragon. It would be a dragon in sheep’s clothing. It would be that old serpent, called the devil and Satan disguised as a lamb. We see a religion with the heart of the serpent (Mat 12:34).

That generation was the destined generation. Jesus spoke to it in Matthew 12:34. They were vipers (serpents) who were evil. That system spoke as a dragon. However, they did have authority and power. This beast who was the false lamb has two horns (see discussion on horns 12:3). The true Lamb of God has seven horns (5:6). Seven is the number used for spiritual fullness. Two is a number used for agreement (Mat 18:19; Amo 3:3). The two beasts were in agreement. The first beast of the sea and the beast of the earth ge (soil, region) agree. Religion and the devil agreed!

Revelation 13:12 And he exerciseth all the power of the first beast before him, and causeth the earth and them which dwell therein to worship the first beast, whose deadly wound was healed.

12 The deadly wound (see verse 3) was the on-living of the Caesars. The Roman Senate killed Gaius Julius in an attempt to stop the “one Emperor” rule of the Roman Empire. We have discussed and quoted from historians how the Jews offered sacrifice for Caesar and their nation (see discussion verse 1). We have quoted Scriptures showing how the Jews said they had no king but Caesar. We have shown how they rejected Christ because they feared the Romans (not God). The apostates feared they would lose their place as a nation (see discussion verse 4). The religion of the Sadducees and Pharisees caused their ge (soil and region) to worship the first beast. That beast was the Roman Empire. The Jews worshiped Caesar through sacrifices. They feared the Romans and not the Lord God. They killed the Christ.

This false lamb beast relied upon the power of the first beast. We see this expressed as Jesus was brought by the earth beast to stand before Pilate. The Jews were given the liberty to deal with situations of national interest. However, they relied upon the power of the first beast which was Rome. Pilate told the Jews to deal with Jesus themselves. The Jews wanted to exercise the power of the first beast forsaking the law of God.

During the first century, until the Jewish religion was destroyed, the Jews constantly persecuted those called Christians. The book of Acts is full of examples showing this false lamb beast’s hatred for Christ. This is seen with Stephen (Act 6:9-14).

This beast with the dragon heart continued after Stephen’s death. The Jews became the enemy of the Church (Act 13:6-8;.14:2; 17:5; 18:12; 19:8-9).

We should see that this beast did function in the realm of religion. It desired to be seen in the likeness of the lamb, but in reality it was the dragon in sheep’s clothing.

Revelation 13:13 And he doeth great wonders, so that he maketh fire come down from heaven on the earth in the sight of men,

Revelation 13:14 And deceiveth them that dwell on the earth by the means of those miracles which he had power to do in the sight of the beast; saying to them that dwell on the earth, that they should make an image to the beast, which had the wound by a sword, and did live.

Revelation 13:15 And he had power to give life unto the image of the beast, that the image of the beast should both speak, and cause that as many as would not worship the image of the beast should be killed.

13, 14 This was an allusion to the wise men, sorcerers, and magicians of Egypt (Exo 7:11, 22; 8:7, 18, 19). They duplicated many of the miracles of Moses. In fact they worked all the miracles until the Lord smote them with boils and they could not stand (Exo 8:7; 9:11).

Jesus spoke about people who would do miracles, but were not of him. Acts tells us of people casting out devils in Jesus’ name, but were not from him (Mat 7:22-23). These were only Jewish exorcists and vagabonds (Act 19:13).

The interesting biblical point is that miracles can be worked by people who do not know Jesus Christ. We know that signs should follow them that believe (Mar 16:17). Yet, those doing signs can be false prophets. Because a person works a healing or works miracles does not necessarily mean that person is of the Lamb. That person could well be of that which is like a lamb.

This beast that was like a lamb deceiveth them that dwell on the earth by the means of those miracles which he had power to do.

John said the false lamb beast deceiveth them saying to them that dwell on the earth, that they should make an image to the beast, which had the wound by a sword, and did live. Matthew Henry wrote his commentaries prior to the dispensationalist of the mid 1800’s. He decided that John was teaching about idolatry.

“To make an image to the beast, whose deadly wound was healed, would be to give form and power to his worship, or to require obedience to his commands. To worship the image of the beast, implies being subject to those things which stamp the character of the picture, and render it the image of the beast.”

However, Wycliff Commentary written after the dispensationalist teachings says,

“The period of the ‘times of the Gentiles’ began with the forced worship of an image set up by a powerful ruler (by Nebuchadnezzar, in Daniel 3); and this period will close with a similar enforced worship, this time on a universal scale.”

We agree with the allusion Wycliff draws from Daniel 3. We cannot agree nor believe that people universally will ever worship an image, even if it talks. The obvious allusion is to Daniel chapter three. Nebuchadnezzar set up an image and demanded that it be worshiped. It was that image that Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego refused to worship. It was to this image worship John alludes. Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego would not bow. For this refusal, they were placed into the fiery furnace. They would not receive the mark of society and would not succumb to the pressure of society. This was the stage John was setting. The false image was Judaism. It was not to be worshiped by the people of God. The Lord said the synagogue of the Jews was the synagogue of Satan (Rev 2:9; 3:9).

Revelation 13:16 And he causeth all, both small and great, rich and poor, free and bond, to receive a mark in their right hand, or in their foreheads:

15-16 We have heard this mark is anything from a credit card to a microchip placed under the skin. Remember going roller skating and being stamped on your hand so you could get back in? Do you remember people saying that was the mark of the beast?

The dumbest person in the whole world would not worship a manmade image (wood, metal, plastic etc.) and receive a mark in their forehead and or in their hand. The dumbest person would know what that was today. They would know they would spend eternity in hell. We have something much larger here and much more applicable.

John was talking about a way of thinking (head) that marks us by a way of doing (hand). Without the ministry of the Lord God we cannot change the way we mentally process information. Psychologist have a term for the way we process information. That term is “schema.” Schema is defined as the “pattern imposed on complex reality or experience to assist in explaining it, mediate perception, or guide response.” 

This simply means every individual has a process by which we take information and respond to that information. It is our thinking process. A child raised in the ghettos of New York does not process information as a child raised by a wealthy family. Because of social, economic, or legal pressure the thought process is different. One is programed to be wealthy and one is programed to be poor. A person raised in wealthy America does not process information as a person raised in poor India.

There is a new word out today referred to as “paradigm.” Perhaps it is not a new word, but it speaks of a shift in thinking. This is accomplished by changing the example that serves as pattern or model. Theoretically if the person raised in India patterns after the person raised in America then the person from India will think like the person from America.

We are instructed in Romans 12:1-2 to present ourselves as living sacrifices. This is so we will not be conformed to this world but transformed by the renewing of our minds. By experiencing this we enter the apex of “schema” and “paradigm.” We have minds that know the good, acceptable, and perfect will of God. We begin to have the mind of Christ (1 Cor 2:16). We can have renewed minds. Note the following Scripture.

Jer 13:23 Can the Ethiopian change his skin, or the leopard his spots? then may ye also do good, that are accustomed to do evil.

People cannot do good that are accustomed to doing evil any more than a person can permanently change their skin color or a leopard can change its spots. That is, a person cannot do good when accustomed to doing evil unless the Lord works a work by renewing the mind.

This is what happens to the believer. We do not process information the way we once processed information. We now process or filter information through the Word of God. We do as 2 Timothy 2:15 says, “Study to shew thyself approved unto God, a workman that needeth not to be ashamed, rightly dividing the word of truth.” We make a legitimate attempt to divide and process information by the word of truth. This marks the thinking (head) and my actions (hand).

The Old Testament taught this. What we are taught as children will remain with us. We are instructed by our parents to process information. This is the way of the Lord. Seed produces seed after it its own kind (Gen 1:12). Righteous seed will teach its seed righteously. Thus, it becomes marked (Deu 6:6-8).

We learn a principle of the mark on the forehead for the Old Testament priests. The priests of God (which we are — Rev 1:6; 5:10) are to wear a signet or mark upon their foreheads. That signet mark is to read “HOLINESS TO THE LORD.” It is to always be upon our foreheads that we may be accepted before the Lord (Exo 28:36-38).

We learn from Ezekiel those who do not wear the Lord’s mark will find in the Day of Judgment the rejection of the God Almighty. Ezekiel writing about Jerusalem wrote of the mark. Those not receiving the proper mark were destroyed (Eze 9:4).

The beast is the contradiction or paradox of the Lord. The Lord demands allegiance. The beast demands allegiance also. Those in allegiance with the beast are also marked. They also produce fruit. It is the fruit of division and sowing into minds beastly things. There are only two marks. We each have one. It’s that simple. It’s not complicated. There is the mark of the Lord and the mark of the beast. There is no “gray area.” There is no “fence straddling.” John tells us we must make a decision because the beast causeth all, both small and great, rich and poor, free and bond, to receive a mark in their right hand, or in their foreheads. Each person must receive a mark.

Revelation 13:17 And that no man might buy or sell, save he that had the mark, or the name of the beast, or the number of his name.

17 The proof of the mark was worshiping the idol. Barclay says,

“When a man had burned his pinch of incense to Caesar, he was given a certificate to say that he had done so. The mark of the beast may be the certificate of worship, which a Christian could obtain only at the cost of denying his faith.”

Revelation 13:18 Here is wisdom. Let him that hath understanding count the number of the beast: for it is the number of a man; and his number is Six hundred threescore and six.

18 From the time we come into the “church” we hear about the mark of the beast and this “666” number. Even unbelievers know about “666.” Hollywood works this number and plays it to the fullest. We are told this number is “antichrist.” In my lifetime this “antichrist” person has been the Pope, Henry Kissinger, Nikita Khrushchev, Mikhail Gorbachev, Ronald Ragan and I am sure others I cannot remember. It was Hitler. It was Joseph Stalin. The truth is it was someone, but that someone lived during John’s generation. John is writing about those things “which must shortly come to pass” and “things which must shortly be done.” (1:1; 22:6) His readers, the seven churches in Asia (1:4, 11), would have no problem understanding who this was. We already know from earlier discussions in this chapter that seven kings: five are fallen, and one is, and the other is not yet come, and when he cometh, he must continue a short space (17:10). It is the “one is” that John here revealed. The “one is” was the 666.

We have already determined from Daniel 2:44, 45 that in the days of the fourth kingdom the stone would be cut out of the mountain. That stone would crush every kingdom and establish the kingdom of God forever. Jesus was and is that stone. No one argues with that. The fourth world kingdom of Daniel 2 was the Roman Empire. No one can argue with that. That is fact. This was also the fourth beast of Daniel 7:7 and the sea beast of Revelation 13. We have previously discussed this.

The beast had seven heads of which “one is” (Rev 17:10). Simply to find the person John wants to show us we find who the seventh head of the Roman Empire was. It was none other than Nero. The list in order was Julius, Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claud, then Nero (number 6). Following Nero was Galba.

In David Chilton’s excellent book, The Days of Vengeance, Chilton goes into much detail determining how to calculate the number “666.” John does say let him that hath understanding count the number of the beast. But then gives us the number, not in numerical numbers, but rather in written numbers – for it is the number of a man; and his number is Six hundred threescore and six. Chilton discusses calculating from triangles. He also calculates one of the more interesting ideas, calculating from the Hebrew alphabet. The summation of it all is that this number is in fact Nero.

William Barclay does a similar study in his book, The Revelation of John Volume 2. He also comes to the conclusion that this must mean Nero. We will use his explanation of the counting. It seems to be a little shorter than Chilton’s. Barclay says,

“It must be remembered that the ancient peoples had no figures and the letters of the alphabet did duty for numbers as well. This is as if in English we used A for 1, B for 2, C for 3, D for 4 and so on. Every word, therefore, and in particular every proper name, can also be a number… If we take Nero in Latin and give it its numerical equivalent, we get:

N = 50

E = 6

R = 500

0 = 60

N = 50

The total is 666.”

Barclay sees this. Yet he continues to believe that this means someone in the form of Nero will return to this world. Barclay says,

“There is little doubt that the number of the beast stands for Nero; and that John is forecasting the coming of Antichrist in the form of Nero, the incarnation of all evil , returning to this world.”

Nero was definitely a beast.

“From 62, Nero ruled unrestrained. Having divorced and murdered his first wife, Claudius’s daughter, Octavia, Nero married (62) Poppaea Sabina, an ambitious intriguer. In 62 he revived the wide-ranging law of treason, and people were executed on suspicion of offense. In 64 a great fire ruined Rome. Nero lavishly rebuilt the city, but rumor held that he had started the fire himself to make room for his new palace and that he had recited poetry while watching the blaze. To avert this suspicion Nero blamed the Christians for the fire, thus initiating the first major Roman persecution of that sect. Executions increased in 65, when an assassination plot was uncovered.

NERO, the last emperor in the Julio-Claudian dynasty, assumed the throne in 54. He governed well in his early years when he was under the influence of Lucius Annaeus SENECA and Sextus Afranius Burrus (d. 62), chief of the Praetorian guard. Gradually, however, the influence of his mother and of his second wife, Poppaea Sabina (d. 65), triumphed, and Nero’s reign turned bloodthirsty. He poisoned Britannicus, his mother, and Burrus, and legend says that he kicked Poppaea to death. Nero was accused of burning Rome in 64; he in turn blamed a new sect, the Christians, for the fire and began the first Roman persecution of them; Saint Peter and Saint Paul were among its victims. Nero committed suicide in 68 when he saw that a revolution against him was succeeding. He was followed by GALBA and, in 69 (the year of the four emperors), by Otho (32-69), Vitellius (15-69), and Vespasian.”

Nero is remembered in history as one of the vilest of all emperors. He murdered his own family members. He kicked his wife to death after poisoning her. He was a homosexual who would dress in animal skins and sexually assault men and women. It was under his reign that Christians first became martyrs, because Nero enjoyed watching people die horrible deaths. He instigated the original Roman candle using Christians tied to poles, doused with oil, and set on fire. He fed Christians to starved animals and watched people be devoured. Throughout history the leader of any nation set both the mentality of the nation and displayed the mentality of that nation. Nero definitely did this. The great Roman Empire began its downward plunge after Nero. The nation followed the degeneration of its deviated leaders. Any Historical writing will tell of the debaucher of Nero.

John tells us this number — six hundred threescore and six— is simply the number of man. Man was created on day six. Man is to labor six days. Jesus Christ was crucified on day six by man. Goliath’s height was six cubits and a span. The image that Nebuchadnezzar built in Daniel 3 had a span of six cubits.

Every Word teacher has something they will eventually settle into on six hundred threescore and six. Dispensationalists will look for a literal mark. Preterists will look and say it was Nero. One thing we do know is it is the number of man – 666. John says it was. Man is “6” in his spirit. Man is “6” in his soul. Man is “6” in his body. Thus man is 666. Surely we see this in Nero. His body was used for perversion. His soul was evil and filthy and degraded. His spirit – life force was of the dragon who is the serpent, the devil, and Satan. The fruit of his life proved this. Six hundred threescore and six is not only the number of the beast. Six hundred threescore and six (666) is definitely the number of man. John clearly says for it is the number of a man; and his number is Six hundred threescore and six.

Man without the seal of the living God (7:2) has the beast’s mark. With the seal of the living God one cannot buy or sell of the world. We must trust God if we take the Lord’s mark. With the mark of the beast one cannot help but buy and sell of the same beast they are marked.


Contemporary Theological View(s)

In this chapter we have explained the contemporary views as we went. The chapter has two main teachings. We see the beast of the sea and the beast of the land.

Revelation 13:1 And I stood upon the sand of the sea, and saw a beast rise up out of the sea, having seven heads and ten horns, and upon his horns ten crowns, and upon his heads the name of blasphemy.

Contemporary Dispensationalists call this beast the antichrist. They recognize that this is the same beast as found in Revelation 17. By using both chapters it is proven that it is the Roman Empire. Dispensationalists agree with that. They, however, teach that a new Roman Empire will be constructed. From Rome the antichrist will rule the world. At some point he will die and be resurrected. The comments of Cohen are priceless. We must quote them once again.

“This seems to be the Antichrist’s counterfeit of the resurrection of Christ! How will it occur? No one knows. Perhaps it will be accomplished by modern freezing techniques??? Antichrist may be stabbed, pronounced dead, frozen, operated upon, unfrozen, given an electric shock–and then be ALIVE AGAIN! RESURRECTED!”

We showed scripturally that the beast of the sea was the Roman Empire. It was specifically the time of Nero’s reign.

Revelation 13:11 And I beheld another beast coming up out of the earth; and he had two horns like a lamb, and he spake as a dragon.

For the most part Dispensationalists say this beast of the land is a false Christ. McGee says he too is an antichrist. McGee says,

“The earth from which this second beast arises is symbolic of Palestine, and it is naturally assumed that the second beast comes from Israel. He is a messiah, and Israel would not accept him unless he had come from their land and was one of them.”

There are Dispensationalists who do not buy into the “one man” false prophet idea. They believe this is more of a religious deceit. Wall says,

“John’s intent is not to associate this beast as a parody of Christ; rather, this beast, the false prophet, is an exemplar of those subtle forms of evil which deceive people into embracing lies as God’s truth (cf. 13:14a). In this sense, the second beast parodies the Paraclete, who promotes the truth of God by drawing people to Christ (cf. John 14:16-27). If the task of the second beast is to lead people to the first beast, which parodies Christ, (13:12 ) then the nature of the second beast’s deceptions is to convince people that the falsehoods and fictions of secularism are viable substitutes for Christ Jesus, who incarnates what is true and real.”

Other Related Sermons:

Revelation Chapter 10, Mighty Angel, the Little Book Sweet and Bitter – video audio notes

Revelation Chapter 12, Woman with Child, Great Red Dragon, War in Heaven – video audio notes

Revelation Chapter 6, Horse and Four Horsemen – video audio notes

Chilton, The Days Of Vengeance, page 326

Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary, Bible Research Systems, Austin Texas

Robert W. Wall, New International Biblical Commentary Revelation, page 207

Dr. Jack Van Impe, Revelation Revealed, page 237

Thompson Chain-Reference Bible

Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary, Bible Research Systems, Austin Texas

F.W. Farrar, The Early Days of Christianity, (Chicago and New York: Belford, Clarke & Co., 1882), p. 532, quoted from The Days of Vengeance, David Chilton, page 437

Josephus, Wars of the Jews, Book III, IV, 2, page 504

American Heritage Dictionary

Josephus, Wars of the Jews, Book II, X, 1, page 479

Josephus, Wars of the Jews, Book II, V, 4, page 480

Josephus, Wars of the Jews, Book VII, V, 5, page 594

Foxe’s Christian Martyrs of the World, page 10

Tim Lahaye, Revelation Illustrated & Made Plain, page 178

Josephus, Wars of the Jews, Book IV, IX, 2, page 541

The New Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia

Tim Lahaye, Revelation Illustrated & Made Plain, page 180

Dr. Gary G. Cohen, Revelation Visualized, page 209

Vernon McGee, Revelation Chapters 6-13, page 174

Josephus, Wars of the Jews, Book VII, V, 5, page 594

Josephus, Wars of the Jews, Book II, V, 4

Matthew Henry’s Commentary, Bible Research Systems, Austin Texas

Wycliff Bible Commentary, Bible Research Systems, Austin Texas

American Heritage Dictionary

William Barclay, the Revelation of John Volume 2, page 99-100

Chilton, The Days Of Vengeance, page 346-352

William Barclay, the Revelation of John Volume 2, page 101-102

William Barclay, the Revelation of John Volume 2, page 102

Linderski, Nero, Roman Emperor, Rome, ancient, New Multimedia Encyclopedia

Dr. Gary G. Cohen, Revelation Visualized, page 209

Vernon McGee, Revelation Chapters 6-13, page 181

Robert W. Wall, New International Biblical Commentary Revelation, page